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Tuesday, February 28, 2012

The new subspecialty of clinical informatics: Some (but not all) questions answered

Last fall, the American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS) approved a medical subspecialty in clinical informatics. The approval of this subspecialty is a recognition of the critical professional role played by clinical informaticians.

As information is so critical to 21st Century medicine, whether in the need for healthcare to be more accountable for its operations or in the coming complexity of clinical decision-making from the data "tsunami" due to advances in genomics and related areas, there will be increasing need for those who work at the interface of medicine and information systems.

Although administered by the American Board of Preventive Medicine (ABPM), the subspecialty will be available to all physicians who have a primary board certification, which is a first for medical subspecialties. The first offering of the examination will likely take place in late 2012 or early 2012 for those who meet the criteria for "grandfathering" of the training requirements.

In the long run, physicians wanting to subspecialize in clinical informatics will need to complete formal fellowship training. The motivation for physician certification in informatics is to recognize the growing stature and need for professional expertise of physicians who spend a significant amount of their time performing informatics-related duties. This includes not only the growing role of the Chief Medical Informatics Officer (CMIO), but other jobs where a physician draws on his or her expertise at the intersection of medicine and informatics.

A great deal of further information is available about this development. The American Medical Informatics Association (AMIA), which spearheaded the effort, has developed a subsite of its website devoted this effort. The site includes a background document, the original press release announcing the ABMS approval, a collection of frequently asked questions (FAQs), and an article by AMIA President Dr. Ted Shortliffe.

I report on this topic periodically in my own blog as well, and an audio report from the iHealthBeat website is also informative.

The "gold standard" for any type of certification of physicians is board certification. There are currently 24 specialty boards (e.g., internal medicine, family medicine, pediatrics, surgery, radiology, preventive medicine, etc.), most of which have subspecialty boards as well (e.g., cardiology, hematology/oncology, and general internal medicine in internal medicine). Some subspecialties, such as geriatrics and palliative medicine, are offered by more than one specialty board. This will be the model for the clinical informatics subspecialty, and in fact it will be offered by all 24 specialty boards.

A comprehensive overview of the rationale and plan for developing the clinical informatics subspecialty was published in early 2010 by Detmer et al.1. This paper described the development of medical specialties and subspecialties generally and in the context of the new proposed subspecialty of clinical informatics. A more recent overview of the status board specialties was published last year and included mention of the proposed one for clinical informatics.2 Papers published in 2009 laid out the details of the core curriculum 3 and training requirements 4 for the subspecialty.

The proposal to establish the clinical informatics subspecialty was developed by the American Medical Informatics Association (AMIA) and submitted to the ABMS in 2010. The lead board submitting the proposal was the American Board of Preventive Medicine (ABPM), which has since been joined by the American Board of Pathology. These two boards will be the administrative home for the subspecialty although as noted above, physicians of all primary specialties will be able to become certified.

Certification in clinical informatics will work like any other multi-board subspecialty. To become certified, a physician will need to meet certain training requirements and then pass a certification exam. In the early years (usually the first five years of a specialty's existence), those with a certain level of experience will be able to "grandfather" in on the training requirements in a "practice track" and certify by passing the exam only.

Those training after the initial practice track period will be required to complete some sort of fellowship in the specialty. The practice track requirements for clinical informatics will be determined after the ABMS approves the subspecialty and will likely apply to those with some defined level of time and depth of experience in clinical informatics settings.

Now that the ABMS proposal has been approved, the ABPM will begin development of a certification exam, which will likely become available in the fall of 2012 for those meeting the practice track requirements. The next step will be to define the requirements for clinical fellowships in clinical informatics and their accreditation by the Accreditation Committee for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME), which accredits residency and specialty fellowship training programs.

Even though the process for establishing the subspecialty is well-defined, a number of questions remain. One question is how many health care organizations and others will require their physician-informatician practitioners to be certified. Another question, very critical to academic informatics units, is what will be the role for formal didactic education, especially that offered by distance learning.

Programs such as ours at OHSU have been a popular vehicle for physicians and others to become informatics practitioners. The distance learning aspect has been especially valuable, as many clinicians enter informatics careers after they have established their clinical careers.

The graduate-level education approach has been validated by the strong uptake of these programs as well as the more recent funding for them though the Office of National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC) University-Based Training (UBT) Program, including the program I direct at Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU).

I am hopeful that ACGME will adopt flexibility in the clinical informatics fellowship program educational programs, including possibly allowing organizations like OHSU to provide the coursework portion of the training requirements in settings where a large educational infrastructure is not available.

Although there are a number of details still forthcoming, this new development is an exciting one for the informatics field. AMIA is also developing other pathways for comparable certification not only for physicians who are not eligible for ABMS certification but also for informatics professionals of other backgrounds, both clinical and non-clinical. All of these will contribute to the critical role that informatics plays in the 21st Century health care system.

References:
[1] Detmer, D., Munger, B., et al. (2010). Clinical informatics board certification: history, current status, and predicted impact on the medical informatics workforce. Applied Clinical Informatics, 1: 11-18.
[2] Cassel, C. and Reuben, D. (2011). Specialization, subspecialization, and subsubspecialization in internal medicine. N Engl Journ Med, 364: 1169-1173.
[3] Gardner, R., Overhage, J., et al. (2009). Core content for the subspecialty of clinical informatics. JAMA, 16: 153-157.
[4] Safran, C., Shabot, M., et al. (2009). ACGME program requirements for fellowship education in the subspecialty of clinical informatics. JAMIA, 16: 158-166.

This post by William Hersh, MD, FACP, Professor and Chair, Department of Medical Informatics & Clinical Epidemiology, Oregon Health & Science University, originally appeared at his blog Informatics Professor, where he posts his thoughts on various topics related to biomedical and health informatics.

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1 Comments:

Anonymous Josh Lipsman, MD, JD, MPH said...

Thanks for posting this. A couple of editorial comments: (1) The exam will first be offered in the fall of 2013, not this year. (2) There will also be Maintenance of Certification (MOC) requirements--in early development now--that will go into effect for this specialty (as with all other specialties) as soon as the first diplomates are certified. As much as possible, efforts will be made for Clinical Informatics MOC requirements to be redundant with those of other specialties, so diplomates' MOC burdens can be minimiized.

March 14, 2012 at 9:53 AM  

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Members of the American College of Physicians contribute posts from their own sites to ACP Internistand ACP Hospitalist. Contributors include:

Albert Fuchs, MD
Albert Fuchs, MD, FACP, graduated from the University of California, Los Angeles School of Medicine, where he also did his internal medicine training. Certified by the American Board of Internal Medicine, Dr. Fuchs spent three years as a full-time faculty member at UCLA School of Medicine before opening his private practice in Beverly Hills in 2000.

And Thus, It Begins
Amanda Xi, ACP Medical Student Member, is a first-year medical student at the OUWB School of Medicine, charter class of 2015, in Rochester, Mich., from which she which chronicles her journey through medical training from day 1 of medical school.

Auscultation
Ira S. Nash, MD, FACP, is the senior vice president and executive director of the North Shore-LIJ Medical Group, and a professor of Cardiology and Population Health at Hofstra North Shore-LIJ School of Medicine. He is Board Certified in Internal Medicine and Cardiovascular Diseases and was in the private practice of cardiology before joining the full-time faculty of Massachusetts General Hospital.

Zackary Berger
Zackary Berger, MD, ACP Member, is a primary care doctor and general internist in the Division of General Internal Medicine at Johns Hopkins. His research interests include doctor-patient communication, bioethics, and systematic reviews.

Controversies in Hospital Infection Prevention
Run by three ACP Fellows, this blog ponders vexing issues in infection prevention and control, inside and outside the hospital. Daniel J Diekema, MD, FACP, practices infectious diseases, clinical microbiology, and hospital epidemiology in Iowa City, Iowa, splitting time between seeing patients with infectious diseases, diagnosing infections in the microbiology laboratory, and trying to prevent infections in the hospital. Michael B. Edmond, MD, FACP, is a hospital epidemiologist in Richmond, Va., with a focus on understanding why infections occur in the hospital and ways to prevent these infections, and sees patients in the inpatient and outpatient settings. Eli N. Perencevich, MD, ACP Member, is an infectious disease physician and epidemiologist in Iowa City, Iowa, who studies methods to halt the spread of resistant bacteria in our hospitals (including novel ways to get everyone to wash their hands).

db's Medical Rants
Robert M. Centor, MD, FACP, contributes short essays contemplating medicine and the health care system.

Suneel Dhand, MD, ACP Member
Suneel Dhand, MD, ACP Member, is a practicing physician in Massachusetts. He has published numerous articles in clinical medicine, covering a wide range of specialty areas including; pulmonology, cardiology, endocrinology, hematology, and infectious disease. He has also authored chapters in the prestigious "5-Minute Clinical Consult" medical textbook. His other clinical interests include quality improvement, hospital safety, hospital utilization, and the use of technology in health care.

DrDialogue
Juliet K. Mavromatis, MD, FACP, provides a conversation about health topics for patients and health professionals.

Dr. Mintz' Blog
Matthew Mintz, MD, FACP, has practiced internal medicine for more than a decade and is an Associate Professor of Medicine at an academic medical center on the East Coast. His time is split between teaching medical students and residents, and caring for patients.

Everything Health
Toni Brayer, MD, FACP, blogs about the rapid changes in science, medicine, health and healing in the 21st century.

FutureDocs
Vineet Arora, MD, FACP, is Associate Program Director for the Internal Medicine Residency and Assistant Dean of Scholarship & Discovery at the Pritzker School of Medicine for the University of Chicago. Her education and research focus is on resident duty hours, patient handoffs, medical professionalism, and quality of hospital care. She is also an academic hospitalist.

Glass Hospital
John H. Schumann, MD, FACP, provides transparency on the workings of medical practice and the complexities of hospital care, illuminates the emotional and cognitive aspects of caregiving and decision-making from the perspective of an active primary care physician, and offers behind-the-scenes portraits of hospital sanctums and the people who inhabit them.

Gut Check
Ryan Madanick, MD, ACP Member, is a gastroenterologist at the University of North Carolina School of Medicine, and the Program Director for the GI & Hepatology Fellowship Program. He specializes in diseases of the esophagus, with a strong interest in the diagnosis and treatment of patients who have difficult-to-manage esophageal problems such as refractory GERD, heartburn, and chest pain.

I'm dok
Mike Aref, MD, PhD, FACP, is an academic hospitalist with an interest in basic and clinical science and education, with interests in noninvasive monitoring and diagnostic testing using novel bedside imaging modalities, diagnostic reasoning, medical informatics, new medical education modalities, pre-code/code management, palliative care, patient-physician communication, quality improvement, and quantitative biomedical imaging.

Informatics Professor
William Hersh, MD, FACP, Professor and Chair, Department of Medical Informatics & Clinical Epidemiology, Oregon Health & Science University, posts his thoughts on various topics related to biomedical and health informatics.

David Katz, MD
David L. Katz, MD, MPH, FACP, is an internationally renowned authority on nutrition, weight management, and the prevention of chronic disease, and an internationally recognized leader in integrative medicine and patient-centered care.

Just Oncology
Richard Just, MD, ACP Member, has 36 years in clinical practice of hematology and medical oncology. His blog is a joint publication with Gregg Masters, MPH.

KevinMD
Kevin Pho, MD, ACP Member, offers one of the Web's definitive sites for influential health commentary.

MD Whistleblower
Michael Kirsch, MD, FACP, addresses the joys and challenges of medical practice, including controversies in the doctor-patient relationship, medical ethics and measuring medical quality. When he's not writing, he's performing colonoscopies.

Medical Lessons
Elaine Schattner, MD, FACP, shares her ideas on education, ethics in medicine, health care news and culture. Her views on medicine are informed by her past experiences in caring for patients, as a researcher in cancer immunology, and as a patient who's had breast cancer.

Mired in MedEd
Alexander M. Djuricich, MD, FACP, is the Associate Dean for Continuing Medical Education (CME), and a Program Director in Medicine-Pediatrics at the Indiana University School of Medicine in Indianapolis, where he blogs about medical education.

More Musings
Rob Lamberts, MD, ACP Member, a med-peds and general practice internist, returns with "volume 2" of his personal musings about medicine, life, armadillos and Sasquatch at More Musings (of a Distractible Kind).

Prescriptions
David M. Sack, MD, FACP, practices general gastroenterology at a small community hospital in Connecticut. His blog is a series of musings on medicine, medical care, the health care system and medical ethics, in no particular order.

Reflections of a Grady Doctor
Kimberly Manning, MD, FACP, reflects on the personal side of being a doctor in a community hospital in Atlanta.

The Blog of Paul Sufka
Paul Sufka, MD, ACP Member, is a board certified rheumatologist in St. Paul, Minn. He was a chief resident in internal medicine with the University of Minnesota and then completed his fellowship training in rheumatology in June 2011 at the University of Minnesota Department of Rheumatology. His interests include the use of technology in medicine.

Technology in (Medical) Education
Neil Mehta, MBBS, MS, FACP, is interested in use of technology in education, social media and networking, practice management and evidence-based medicine tools, personal information and knowledge management.

Peter A. Lipson, MD
Peter A. Lipson, MD, ACP Member, is a practicing internist and teaching physician in Southeast Michigan. The blog, which has been around in various forms since 2007, offers musings on the intersection of science, medicine, and culture.

Why is American Health Care So Expensive?
Janice Boughton, MD, FACP, practiced internal medicine for 20 years before adopting a career in hospital and primary care medicine as a locum tenens physician. She lives in Idaho when not traveling.

World's Best Site
Daniel Ginsberg, MD, FACP, is an internal medicine physician who has avidly applied computers to medicine since 1986, when he first wrote medically oriented computer programs. He is in practice in Tacoma, Washington.

Other blogs of note:

American Journal of Medicine
Also known as the Green Journal, the American Journal of Medicine publishes original clinical articles of interest to physicians in internal medicine and its subspecialities, both in academia and community-based practice.

Clinical Correlations
A collaborative medical blog started by Neil Shapiro, MD, ACP Member, associate program director at New York University Medical Center's internal medicine residency program. Faculty, residents and students contribute case studies, mystery quizzes, news, commentary and more.

Interact MD
Michael Benjamin, MD, ACP member, doesn't accept industry money so he can create an independent, clinician-reviewed space on the Internet for physicians to report and comment on the medical news of the day.

PLoS Blog
The Public Library of Science's open access materials include a blog.

White Coat Rants
One of the most popular anonymous blogs written by an emergency room physician.

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