Monday, July 16, 2012
'How can I raise my HDL?'
"How can I raise my HDL?" I have often been asked this question during my years of practice. Lifestyle strategies include smoking cessation, exercise and alcohol in moderation. However, evidence is mounting that perhaps this is not the salient question.
Three recent studies suggest that raising HDL levels may not be helpful in terms of reducing one's risk of cardiovascular disease.
1) The AIM-HIGH study compared niacin, which raises HDL, lowers LDL and lowers triglycerides, to placebo in patients at high risk for cardiovascular disease events (death, myocardial infarction and stroke). The study was stopped because an interim analysis showed that patients taking niacin experienced no benefit from the drug with regard to preventing cardiovascular events.
2) Dal-OUTCOMES was a study in which dalcetrapib, a new drug which causes circulating HDL levels to increase by a mechanism different from niacin (CETP inhibition), was compared to placebo in patients at high risk for cardiovascular events. This study was also stopped early after an interim analysis showed that patients taking the dalcetrapib did not have fewer events than those given placebo. Some years ago, another CETP inhibitor, torceptrapib, was found to actually increase cardiovascular events (though this was blamed on torcetrapib's side effects of increasing aldosterone levels and slightly raising blood pressure; dalcetrapib has no such side effects to blame).
3) A recent study looked at people with genetic variations in cholesterol levels--one group with low LDL levels, and another with high HDL levels. People with genetically low LDL levels had fewer cardiovascular events than those with genetically higher LDL levels, reinforcing the concept that lowering LDL prevents cardiovascular disease. However, patients with genes that resulted in high HDL levels had similar rates of cardiovascular events to those who have genes resulting in lower HDL levels.
Epidemiological data has linked higher HDL levels to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. However the results of these recent studies call into question the utility of trying to raise HDL as a means to prevent cardiovascular disease.
In a separate study conducted by senior author Frank Sachs it was found that not all HDL is created equally. This study, published in April 2012 in the Journal of the American Heart Association, found that HDL molecules that contained apoprotein C-III actually were associated with increased risk of heart disease, compared with HDL that did not contain this "pro-inflammatory" protein.
Practically, what does this mean? Those with low HDL should continue to pay attention to this as a marker that is known to be associated with higher cardiovascular risk. However for now it remains uncertain whether HDL is actually causally related to higher cardiovascular risk.
In the words of Sekar Kathiresan, Director of Preventive Cardiology at Massachusetts General Hospital, a geneticist at the Broad Institute of MIT, and investigator in the recent genetic study (as reported in the New York Times): "The number of factors that track with low HDL is a mile long: obesity, being sedentary, smoking, insulin resistance, having small LDL particles, having increased cholesterol in remnant particles, and having increased amounts of coagulation factors in the blood. Our hypothesis is that much of the association may be due to these other factors."
For now a person with low HDL has less reason to focus on using available HDL-raising treatments and drugs, and more reason to do everything else to reduce his/her risk of heart disease, including getting LDL cholesterol down to recommended levels, or even lower.
Juliet K. Mavromatis, MD, FACP, is a primary care physician in Atlanta, Ga. Previous to her primary care practice, she served on the general internal medicine faculty of Emory University, where she practiced clinical medicine and taught internal medicine residents for 12 years, and led initiatives to improve the quality of care for patients with diabetes. This work fostered an interest in innovative models of primary care delivery. Her blog, DrDialogue, acts as a conversation about health topics for patients and health professionals. This post, co-authored by her husband, Kreton Mavromatis, MD, FACC, Assistant Professor of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Emory University, Director of the Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory, Atlanta VA Medical Center, originally appeared there.
Contact ACP Internist
Send comments to ACP Internist staff at email@example.com.
- QD: News Every Day--FDA eyes mandatory opioid trai...
- Choose Wisely takes aim at unnecessary medical tes...
- So Da Mayor banned soft drinks ...
- QD: News Every Day--Baby boomers face care shortag...
- Dr. Oz and the never-ending infomercial
- Next in residency training: Attack of the tick-box...
- QD: News Every Day--Hypertension prevalence stable...
- Less is more in lower back pain (now tell the pati...
- QD: News Every Day--Meet comfort, spiritual needs ...
- How much do you want your doctors to say about ris...
Members of the American College of Physicians contribute posts from their own sites to ACP Internistand ACP Hospitalist. Contributors include:
Albert Fuchs, MD, FACP, graduated from the University of California, Los Angeles School of Medicine, where he also did his internal medicine training. Certified by the American Board of Internal Medicine, Dr. Fuchs spent three years as a full-time faculty member at UCLA School of Medicine before opening his private practice in Beverly Hills in 2000.
And Thus, It Begins
Amanda Xi, ACP Medical Student Member, is a first-year medical student at the OUWB School of Medicine, charter class of 2015, in Rochester, Mich., from which she which chronicles her journey through medical training from day 1 of medical school.
Ira S. Nash, MD, FACP, is the senior vice president and executive director of the North Shore-LIJ Medical Group, and a professor of Cardiology and Population Health at Hofstra North Shore-LIJ School of Medicine. He is Board Certified in Internal Medicine and Cardiovascular Diseases and was in the private practice of cardiology before joining the full-time faculty of Massachusetts General Hospital.
Zackary Berger, MD, ACP Member, is a primary care doctor and general internist in the Division of General Internal Medicine at Johns Hopkins. His research interests include doctor-patient communication, bioethics, and systematic reviews.
Controversies in Hospital
Run by three ACP Fellows, this blog ponders vexing issues in infection prevention and control, inside and outside the hospital. Daniel J Diekema, MD, FACP, practices infectious diseases, clinical microbiology, and hospital epidemiology in Iowa City, Iowa, splitting time between seeing patients with infectious diseases, diagnosing infections in the microbiology laboratory, and trying to prevent infections in the hospital. Michael B. Edmond, MD, FACP, is a hospital epidemiologist in Iowa City, IA, with a focus on understanding why infections occur in the hospital and ways to prevent these infections, and sees patients in the inpatient and outpatient settings. Eli N. Perencevich, MD, ACP Member, is an infectious disease physician and epidemiologist in Iowa City, Iowa, who studies methods to halt the spread of resistant bacteria in our hospitals (including novel ways to get everyone to wash their hands).
db's Medical Rants
Robert M. Centor, MD, FACP, contributes short essays contemplating medicine and the health care system.
Suneel Dhand, MD, ACP Member
Suneel Dhand, MD, ACP Member, is a practicing physician in Massachusetts. He has published numerous articles in clinical medicine, covering a wide range of specialty areas including; pulmonology, cardiology, endocrinology, hematology, and infectious disease. He has also authored chapters in the prestigious "5-Minute Clinical Consult" medical textbook. His other clinical interests include quality improvement, hospital safety, hospital utilization, and the use of technology in health care.
Juliet K. Mavromatis, MD, FACP, provides a conversation about health topics for patients and health professionals.
Dr. Mintz' Blog
Matthew Mintz, MD, FACP, has practiced internal medicine for more than a decade and is an Associate Professor of Medicine at an academic medical center on the East Coast. His time is split between teaching medical students and residents, and caring for patients.
Toni Brayer, MD, FACP, blogs about the rapid changes in science, medicine, health and healing in the 21st century.
Vineet Arora, MD, FACP, is Associate Program Director for the Internal Medicine Residency and Assistant Dean of Scholarship & Discovery at the Pritzker School of Medicine for the University of Chicago. Her education and research focus is on resident duty hours, patient handoffs, medical professionalism, and quality of hospital care. She is also an academic hospitalist.
John H. Schumann, MD, FACP, provides transparency on the workings of medical practice and the complexities of hospital care, illuminates the emotional and cognitive aspects of caregiving and decision-making from the perspective of an active primary care physician, and offers behind-the-scenes portraits of hospital sanctums and the people who inhabit them.
Ryan Madanick, MD, ACP Member, is a gastroenterologist at the University of North Carolina School of Medicine, and the Program Director for the GI & Hepatology Fellowship Program. He specializes in diseases of the esophagus, with a strong interest in the diagnosis and treatment of patients who have difficult-to-manage esophageal problems such as refractory GERD, heartburn, and chest pain.
Mike Aref, MD, PhD, FACP, is an academic hospitalist with an interest in basic and clinical science and education, with interests in noninvasive monitoring and diagnostic testing using novel bedside imaging modalities, diagnostic reasoning, medical informatics, new medical education modalities, pre-code/code management, palliative care, patient-physician communication, quality improvement, and quantitative biomedical imaging.
William Hersh, MD, FACP, Professor and Chair, Department of Medical Informatics & Clinical Epidemiology, Oregon Health & Science University, posts his thoughts on various topics related to biomedical and health informatics.
David Katz, MD
David L. Katz, MD, MPH, FACP, is an internationally renowned authority on nutrition, weight management, and the prevention of chronic disease, and an internationally recognized leader in integrative medicine and patient-centered care.
Richard Just, MD, ACP Member, has 36 years in clinical practice of hematology and medical oncology. His blog is a joint publication with Gregg Masters, MPH.
Kevin Pho, MD, ACP Member, offers one of the Web's definitive sites for influential health commentary.
Michael Kirsch, MD, FACP, addresses the joys and challenges of medical practice, including controversies in the doctor-patient relationship, medical ethics and measuring medical quality. When he's not writing, he's performing colonoscopies.
Elaine Schattner, MD, FACP, shares her ideas on education, ethics in medicine, health care news and culture. Her views on medicine are informed by her past experiences in caring for patients, as a researcher in cancer immunology, and as a patient who's had breast cancer.
Mired in MedEd
Alexander M. Djuricich, MD, FACP, is the Associate Dean for Continuing Medical Education (CME), and a Program Director in Medicine-Pediatrics at the Indiana University School of Medicine in Indianapolis, where he blogs about medical education.
Rob Lamberts, MD, ACP Member, a med-peds and general practice internist, returns with "volume 2" of his personal musings about medicine, life, armadillos and Sasquatch at More Musings (of a Distractible Kind).
David M. Sack, MD, FACP, practices general gastroenterology at a small community hospital in Connecticut. His blog is a series of musings on medicine, medical care, the health care system and medical ethics, in no particular order.
Reflections of a Grady
Kimberly Manning, MD, FACP, reflects on the personal side of being a doctor in a community hospital in Atlanta.
The Blog of Paul Sufka
Paul Sufka, MD, ACP Member, is a board certified rheumatologist in St. Paul, Minn. He was a chief resident in internal medicine with the University of Minnesota and then completed his fellowship training in rheumatology in June 2011 at the University of Minnesota Department of Rheumatology. His interests include the use of technology in medicine.
Technology in (Medical)
Neil Mehta, MBBS, MS, FACP, is interested in use of technology in education, social media and networking, practice management and evidence-based medicine tools, personal information and knowledge management.
Peter A. Lipson,
Peter A. Lipson, MD, ACP Member, is a practicing internist and teaching physician in Southeast Michigan. The blog, which has been around in various forms since 2007, offers musings on the intersection of science, medicine, and culture.
Why is American Health Care So Expensive?
Janice Boughton, MD, FACP, practiced internal medicine for 20 years before adopting a career in hospital and primary care medicine as a locum tenens physician. She lives in Idaho when not traveling.
World's Best Site
Daniel Ginsberg, MD, FACP, is an internal medicine physician who has avidly applied computers to medicine since 1986, when he first wrote medically oriented computer programs. He is in practice in Tacoma, Washington.
Other blogs of note:
American Journal of
Also known as the Green Journal, the American Journal of Medicine publishes original clinical articles of interest to physicians in internal medicine and its subspecialities, both in academia and community-based practice.
A collaborative medical blog started by Neil Shapiro, MD, ACP Member, associate program director at New York University Medical Center's internal medicine residency program. Faculty, residents and students contribute case studies, mystery quizzes, news, commentary and more.
Michael Benjamin, MD, ACP member, doesn't accept industry money so he can create an independent, clinician-reviewed space on the Internet for physicians to report and comment on the medical news of the day.
The Public Library of Science's open access materials include a blog.
One of the most popular anonymous blogs written by an emergency room physician.