Wednesday, February 20, 2013
A lesson on mental illness care: connecting two tragedies
For the past month I've been trying to formulate a blog that could capture my thoughts about mental illness and the prevention of violence. At this point my ideas are still not crystallized, but perhaps writing this will help.
A few days before Christmas I received a phone call from a former patient's mother. She called while I was at the mall with my family doing some last minute shopping. I had taken the day off work. My patient, who I will call "Mark," and his family had left the state of Georgia and my care approximately 6 months prior. Fighting to contain her grief Mark's mother told me that her son, who was just 25 years old, had taken his own life.
It came as a shock, though admittedly during the brief time that I doctored Mark I had been very concerned about his well-being. His mother said that she wanted me to know because I had worked so hard to help her son. As I listened to the story of the months leading up to his suicide I was flooded with questions: Could I have prevented this? How did he kill himself? Had he found another physician after he moved? Had he been seeing a psychiatrist, as I had recommended?
I had only cared for Mark for three or four months. When we first met, early in 2012, his mother and he were desperate. She called me one evening after clinic hours. I was at my son's saxophone lesson and stepped outside to take the call. She found my medical practice and phone number on Google. She thought I might be able to help. He'd had a tough childhood. His sister was severely disabled. Then, he suffered a traumatic life event in college. Mark, though obviously very intelligent, had dropped out, unable to function. While he was my patient Mark confided that he was desperate to be independent and get back to normal functioning, but felt crippled by his health. He was a very likable young man who I connected with.
He described multiple symptoms: head pressure, mental fogginess, intense pain and burning all over his body coursing from his center outward and down his extremities, nausea, heartburn, post-nasal drip, an intensely dry mouth, insatiable thirst, difficulty swallowing, loss of appetite, change in his bowel habits, weight loss and muscle wasting. Mark felt that he was dying from a medical condition that remained undiagnosed. As he explained it, his trouble had started while was under the care of a psychiatrist. He attributed some of his symptoms to a medication, a serotonin re-uptake inhibitor, Effexor, which he felt had permanently changed him.
He asked if I could test him for permanent damage caused by traces of the drug that might remain in his blood stream months after his last dose. He had left his psychiatrist's care wanting another opinion and a thorough evaluation of these physical symptoms that were relentless and incapacitating.
I embarked on a very thorough medical evaluation, including a plethora of blood tests, an MRI of his brain, a neurology and an allergy and immunology consultation. I knew all the while that the root problem was very likely his underlying psychiatric condition. Mark acknowledged ongoing depressed mood and severe long-standing anxiety, but was primarily concerned about his physical health. I asked to speak with his psychiatrist, but his preference was that I evaluate his condition independently, and he refused. When questioned about thoughts of self-harm or harming others Mark stated, "I could never do that to my mother."
After frequent lengthy office visits and phone calls over a period of several months I was not able to arrive at a unifying medical diagnosis that explained my patient's condition. I was, however, increasingly concerned about his psychological health and referred him to another psychiatrist. I had become aware of underlying paranoid overtones in his affect, which I felt were delusional. He had been concerned about a pharmacy contaminating his prescriptions with a substance that made him ill. He asked me if I knew what the substance was (I had never heard of it), and asked me to investigate it. He expressed suspicion about various commercial labs and preferred that I send his lab specimens to a smaller lab that he had researched and chosen. He felt this lab would do a more accurate job with his lab testing. He asked me my opinion on his future career. He said he was very interested in the military, and asked if I thought that might be a good direction for him. Inwardly I cringed at the thought, and tried to steer him toward a more flexible career choice, and one that would not involve use of firearms.
After several months of working closely with Mark his mother informed me that the family would be moving out of state. Although the timing was not ideal, his father could not turn down the job opportunity and Mark could not stay on his own. Despite my referrals he had never established with a new psychiatrist. In a last ditch attempt to get him some help, I made a phone call to a psychiatrist who I knew and trusted. The psychiatrist agreed to see Mark several times prior to his move. It was the best we could think of.
I felt that I needed to clearly articulate my clinical impression to Mark's mother prior to their departure, which was that my patient was suffering from a psychiatric condition that caused a disorder of thinking in the form of paranoia and delusions. I mentioned schizophrenia. Mark's mother acknowledged that this diagnosis had been previously suggested, but that she and Mark wanted another opinion.
At the time of his last visit Mark brought in a fairly organized list of the symptoms he was suffering from and how they impacted his ability to function. He wanted me to write a letter attesting to the fact that he was unable to work or go to school because of his condition. I agreed to write a letter describing his condition, which was difficult given the fact that there was no psychiatrist involved and his diagnosis appeared to be primarily psychiatric. I explained this to Mark and had a direct conversation with him about my clinical impression.
The visits to my psychiatrist referral never occurred. My patient moved later that summer and I had no further contact until the phone call in December. The news about my patient's tragic suicide came one week after the shooting at Newtown, where, as we all know, another young man with significant psychiatric illness inexplicably sacrificed not only his life, but the lives of 26 children and teachers. I immediately wondered if my patient had shot himself, but somehow during our brief phone conversation, I could not bring myself to ask his mom how he died; it seemed irrelevant to her grief at the time. These two events cast a shadow over my holiday season.
I continue to try to make reason of these two tragedies, hoping to arrive at a pithy lesson by connecting the two that I can bring to clinical practice to avoid future heartbreak. What makes it so difficult to get patients with psychiatric illness the help that they need? In this case it was not problems of access, but the underlying disease process itself made my patient resistant to care.
I am still searching for broader answers, but perhaps I will start with a call back to my patient's mother to find out more details. In the meantime, I remain highly skeptical that improved mental health care alone, without restricting access to firearms will be enough to curb gun violence in our country.
Juliet K. Mavromatis, MD, FACP, is a primary care physician in Atlanta, Ga. Previous to her primary care practice, she served on the general internal medicine faculty of Emory University, where she practiced clinical medicine and taught internal medicine residents for 12 years, and led initiatives to improve the quality of care for patients with diabetes. This work fostered an interest in innovative models of primary care delivery. Her blog, DrDialogue, acts as a conversation about health topics for patients and health professionals. This post originally appeared there.
Contact ACP Internist
Send comments to ACP Internist staff at email@example.com.
- QD: News Every Day--Flu season has peaked, but is ...
- The things they don't teach in medical school
- More on the mistakes of electronic health records
- QD: News Every Day--Diclofenac carries same cardio...
- Serenity prayer can ease chronic pain
- Addendum to patient safety: the "post-hospital syn...
- Top 10 reasons to visit the doctor
- Rosie reincarnated
- QD: News Every Day--Match Day results announced fo...
- This year's flu season isn't mild
Members of the American College of Physicians contribute posts from their own sites to ACP Internistand ACP Hospitalist. Contributors include:
Albert Fuchs, MD, FACP, graduated from the University of California, Los Angeles School of Medicine, where he also did his internal medicine training. Certified by the American Board of Internal Medicine, Dr. Fuchs spent three years as a full-time faculty member at UCLA School of Medicine before opening his private practice in Beverly Hills in 2000.
And Thus, It Begins
Amanda Xi, ACP Medical Student Member, is a first-year medical student at the OUWB School of Medicine, charter class of 2015, in Rochester, Mich., from which she which chronicles her journey through medical training from day 1 of medical school.
Ira S. Nash, MD, FACP, is the senior vice president and executive director of the North Shore-LIJ Medical Group, and a professor of Cardiology and Population Health at Hofstra North Shore-LIJ School of Medicine. He is Board Certified in Internal Medicine and Cardiovascular Diseases and was in the private practice of cardiology before joining the full-time faculty of Massachusetts General Hospital.
Zackary Berger, MD, ACP Member, is a primary care doctor and general internist in the Division of General Internal Medicine at Johns Hopkins. His research interests include doctor-patient communication, bioethics, and systematic reviews.
Controversies in Hospital
Run by three ACP Fellows, this blog ponders vexing issues in infection prevention and control, inside and outside the hospital. Daniel J Diekema, MD, FACP, practices infectious diseases, clinical microbiology, and hospital epidemiology in Iowa City, Iowa, splitting time between seeing patients with infectious diseases, diagnosing infections in the microbiology laboratory, and trying to prevent infections in the hospital. Michael B. Edmond, MD, FACP, is a hospital epidemiologist in Iowa City, IA, with a focus on understanding why infections occur in the hospital and ways to prevent these infections, and sees patients in the inpatient and outpatient settings. Eli N. Perencevich, MD, ACP Member, is an infectious disease physician and epidemiologist in Iowa City, Iowa, who studies methods to halt the spread of resistant bacteria in our hospitals (including novel ways to get everyone to wash their hands).
db's Medical Rants
Robert M. Centor, MD, FACP, contributes short essays contemplating medicine and the health care system.
Suneel Dhand, MD, ACP Member
Suneel Dhand, MD, ACP Member, is a practicing physician in Massachusetts. He has published numerous articles in clinical medicine, covering a wide range of specialty areas including; pulmonology, cardiology, endocrinology, hematology, and infectious disease. He has also authored chapters in the prestigious "5-Minute Clinical Consult" medical textbook. His other clinical interests include quality improvement, hospital safety, hospital utilization, and the use of technology in health care.
Juliet K. Mavromatis, MD, FACP, provides a conversation about health topics for patients and health professionals.
Dr. Mintz' Blog
Matthew Mintz, MD, FACP, has practiced internal medicine for more than a decade and is an Associate Professor of Medicine at an academic medical center on the East Coast. His time is split between teaching medical students and residents, and caring for patients.
Toni Brayer, MD, FACP, blogs about the rapid changes in science, medicine, health and healing in the 21st century.
Vineet Arora, MD, FACP, is Associate Program Director for the Internal Medicine Residency and Assistant Dean of Scholarship & Discovery at the Pritzker School of Medicine for the University of Chicago. Her education and research focus is on resident duty hours, patient handoffs, medical professionalism, and quality of hospital care. She is also an academic hospitalist.
John H. Schumann, MD, FACP, provides transparency on the workings of medical practice and the complexities of hospital care, illuminates the emotional and cognitive aspects of caregiving and decision-making from the perspective of an active primary care physician, and offers behind-the-scenes portraits of hospital sanctums and the people who inhabit them.
Ryan Madanick, MD, ACP Member, is a gastroenterologist at the University of North Carolina School of Medicine, and the Program Director for the GI & Hepatology Fellowship Program. He specializes in diseases of the esophagus, with a strong interest in the diagnosis and treatment of patients who have difficult-to-manage esophageal problems such as refractory GERD, heartburn, and chest pain.
Mike Aref, MD, PhD, FACP, is an academic hospitalist with an interest in basic and clinical science and education, with interests in noninvasive monitoring and diagnostic testing using novel bedside imaging modalities, diagnostic reasoning, medical informatics, new medical education modalities, pre-code/code management, palliative care, patient-physician communication, quality improvement, and quantitative biomedical imaging.
William Hersh, MD, FACP, Professor and Chair, Department of Medical Informatics & Clinical Epidemiology, Oregon Health & Science University, posts his thoughts on various topics related to biomedical and health informatics.
David Katz, MD
David L. Katz, MD, MPH, FACP, is an internationally renowned authority on nutrition, weight management, and the prevention of chronic disease, and an internationally recognized leader in integrative medicine and patient-centered care.
Richard Just, MD, ACP Member, has 36 years in clinical practice of hematology and medical oncology. His blog is a joint publication with Gregg Masters, MPH.
Kevin Pho, MD, ACP Member, offers one of the Web's definitive sites for influential health commentary.
Michael Kirsch, MD, FACP, addresses the joys and challenges of medical practice, including controversies in the doctor-patient relationship, medical ethics and measuring medical quality. When he's not writing, he's performing colonoscopies.
Elaine Schattner, MD, FACP, shares her ideas on education, ethics in medicine, health care news and culture. Her views on medicine are informed by her past experiences in caring for patients, as a researcher in cancer immunology, and as a patient who's had breast cancer.
Mired in MedEd
Alexander M. Djuricich, MD, FACP, is the Associate Dean for Continuing Medical Education (CME), and a Program Director in Medicine-Pediatrics at the Indiana University School of Medicine in Indianapolis, where he blogs about medical education.
Rob Lamberts, MD, ACP Member, a med-peds and general practice internist, returns with "volume 2" of his personal musings about medicine, life, armadillos and Sasquatch at More Musings (of a Distractible Kind).
David M. Sack, MD, FACP, practices general gastroenterology at a small community hospital in Connecticut. His blog is a series of musings on medicine, medical care, the health care system and medical ethics, in no particular order.
Reflections of a Grady
Kimberly Manning, MD, FACP, reflects on the personal side of being a doctor in a community hospital in Atlanta.
The Blog of Paul Sufka
Paul Sufka, MD, ACP Member, is a board certified rheumatologist in St. Paul, Minn. He was a chief resident in internal medicine with the University of Minnesota and then completed his fellowship training in rheumatology in June 2011 at the University of Minnesota Department of Rheumatology. His interests include the use of technology in medicine.
Technology in (Medical)
Neil Mehta, MBBS, MS, FACP, is interested in use of technology in education, social media and networking, practice management and evidence-based medicine tools, personal information and knowledge management.
Peter A. Lipson,
Peter A. Lipson, MD, ACP Member, is a practicing internist and teaching physician in Southeast Michigan. The blog, which has been around in various forms since 2007, offers musings on the intersection of science, medicine, and culture.
Why is American Health Care So Expensive?
Janice Boughton, MD, FACP, practiced internal medicine for 20 years before adopting a career in hospital and primary care medicine as a locum tenens physician. She lives in Idaho when not traveling.
World's Best Site
Daniel Ginsberg, MD, FACP, is an internal medicine physician who has avidly applied computers to medicine since 1986, when he first wrote medically oriented computer programs. He is in practice in Tacoma, Washington.
Other blogs of note:
American Journal of
Also known as the Green Journal, the American Journal of Medicine publishes original clinical articles of interest to physicians in internal medicine and its subspecialities, both in academia and community-based practice.
A collaborative medical blog started by Neil Shapiro, MD, ACP Member, associate program director at New York University Medical Center's internal medicine residency program. Faculty, residents and students contribute case studies, mystery quizzes, news, commentary and more.
Michael Benjamin, MD, ACP member, doesn't accept industry money so he can create an independent, clinician-reviewed space on the Internet for physicians to report and comment on the medical news of the day.
The Public Library of Science's open access materials include a blog.
One of the most popular anonymous blogs written by an emergency room physician.