American College of Physicians: Internal Medicine — Doctors for Adults ®

Tuesday, August 6, 2013

Why is the creatinine elevated?

This patient felt fine until two hours after lunch. He had spent the morning doing construction as usual. At lunch he ate the ham sandwich he had prepared that morning. At 3 p.m. he started vomiting. The vomiting, accompanied by abdominal cramping, continued for several bouts until nothing more could come up. And then the diarrhea started, multiple bouts with large volume watery output. After a few hours he knew that he needed medical help.

He was a star high school athlete 30 years before, and had kept in good shape. He worked out regularly, and had always avoided cigarettes and alcohol. He had never been hospitalized and took no medications.

When he arrived at the emergency department his BP was 86/52 with a pulse of 90. The ED physicians immediately started IV fluids with normal saline. He had one more bout of vomiting and one more diarrhea episode. His initial BMP comes back at 9 p.m.
142, 111, 21, 107
2.8, 20, 2.3, 7

So we ordered a urinalysis that showed (at 3 a.m.):
sp. gr 1.017
mod blood
mod prot
3+ epi
13 WBC
3 hyaline casts

At 4:30 a.m. his repeat BMP returns:
139, 106, 29, 106
4.5, 20, 2.9, 7.9

His creatine kinase levels where 390 at 9 p.m. and 345 at 4:30 a.m.

When I saw him at 9 a.m., he had normal BP lying and standing, with a pulse around 90 at all times. He had had a bladder scan that showed minimal urine, and his output was around 5 cc/hour.

So the question for you is what do you do now? You can order more tests. You can order treatment. You could get a consult. You can criticize the new intern and resident.

We had excluded obstruction, and in my mind the differential diagnosis was predominantly volume contraction versus acute tubular necrosis. This differential is often complex, because volume contraction is a major risk factor for ATN. Had the patient become hypotensive enough to damage his kidneys?

I did criticize the intern and resident for not checking an FeNa at admission. I admit a major bias in favor of this test, but only in oliguric patients. The original description in 1976 written by Dr. Carlos Espinel was published while he was my ward attending! He explained it to us, and I have used it ever since. A 1978 article, Urinary Diagnostic Indices in Acute Renal Failure: A Prospective Study, concludes:

"A prospective analysis of the value of urinary diagnostic indices in ascertaining the cause of acute renal failure was undertaken. Our results show that in the setting of acute oliguria a diagnosis of potentially reversible prerenal azotemia is likely with urine osmolality > 500 mosm/kg H2O, urine sodium concentration < 20 meq/litre, urine/plasma urea nitrogen ratio > 8, and urine/plasma creatinine ratio > 40. Conversely, a urine osmolality < 350 mosm/kg, urine sodium concentration > 40 meq/litre, urine/plasma urea nitrogen ratio < 3, and urine/plasma creatinine ratio < 20 suggest acute tubular necrosis. A significant number of oliguric patients will not have urinary indices that fall within these guidelines. In this setting, urine sodium concentration divided by the urine-to-plasma creatinine ratio (the renal failure index) and the fractional excretion of filtered sodium provide a reliable means of differentiating reversible prerenal azotemia from acute tubular necrosis."

So I asked for a stat urine Na and creatinine. We continued maintenance fluids. Some argued with me that the BUN/creatinine ratio was not high enough. But that ratio is quite unreliable as a diagnostic test. Fortunately, the patient was able to give a sample of very dark urine. 2 hours later the results confirmed a diagnosis: urine Na 31 and urine creatinine 335. We immediately started giving saline at 250 cc/hr. A repeat BMP after 2 liters showed:
138, 109, 27, 78
3.9, 19, 1.9, 7.3

Several lessons and caveats pertain:

1. FeNa pertains only to oliguric patients. Too often I see physicians order FeNa in non-oliguric patients and in those patients it is not validated.

2. A low FeNa (< 1%) occurs either in pre-renal azotemia or acute glomerulonephritis. Our patient had no red cells in his urine, and no reason to suspect acute GN. Pre-renal can occasionally include vascular catastrophes of the renal artery or abdominal aorta.

3. The extremely high urine/plasma creatinine ratio (a bit greater than 100) is very strong evidence of pre-renal azotemia. Note that the FeNa was 0.19% also.

4. We can make assumptions about diagnoses at admission, but should always obtain confirmatory tests. Getting the FeNa at admission would have supported more aggressive volume resuscitation.

5. This particular patient was a bit more confusing than most patients, and I hope the lessons are worthwhile.

db is the nickname for Robert M. Centor, MD, FACP. db stands both for Dr. Bob and da boss. He is an academic general internist at the University of Alabama School of Medicine, and is the Associate Dean for the Huntsville Regional Medical Campus of UASOM. He also serves as a frequent ward attending at the Birmingham VA Hospital. This post originally appeared at his blog, db's Medical Rants.

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Members of the American College of Physicians contribute posts from their own sites to ACP Internistand ACP Hospitalist. Contributors include:

Albert Fuchs, MD
Albert Fuchs, MD, FACP, graduated from the University of California, Los Angeles School of Medicine, where he also did his internal medicine training. Certified by the American Board of Internal Medicine, Dr. Fuchs spent three years as a full-time faculty member at UCLA School of Medicine before opening his private practice in Beverly Hills in 2000.

And Thus, It Begins
Amanda Xi, ACP Medical Student Member, is a first-year medical student at the OUWB School of Medicine, charter class of 2015, in Rochester, Mich., from which she which chronicles her journey through medical training from day 1 of medical school.

Ira S. Nash, MD, FACP, is the senior vice president and executive director of the North Shore-LIJ Medical Group, and a professor of Cardiology and Population Health at Hofstra North Shore-LIJ School of Medicine. He is Board Certified in Internal Medicine and Cardiovascular Diseases and was in the private practice of cardiology before joining the full-time faculty of Massachusetts General Hospital.

Zackary Berger
Zackary Berger, MD, ACP Member, is a primary care doctor and general internist in the Division of General Internal Medicine at Johns Hopkins. His research interests include doctor-patient communication, bioethics, and systematic reviews.

Controversies in Hospital Infection Prevention
Run by three ACP Fellows, this blog ponders vexing issues in infection prevention and control, inside and outside the hospital. Daniel J Diekema, MD, FACP, practices infectious diseases, clinical microbiology, and hospital epidemiology in Iowa City, Iowa, splitting time between seeing patients with infectious diseases, diagnosing infections in the microbiology laboratory, and trying to prevent infections in the hospital. Michael B. Edmond, MD, FACP, is a hospital epidemiologist in Iowa City, IA, with a focus on understanding why infections occur in the hospital and ways to prevent these infections, and sees patients in the inpatient and outpatient settings. Eli N. Perencevich, MD, ACP Member, is an infectious disease physician and epidemiologist in Iowa City, Iowa, who studies methods to halt the spread of resistant bacteria in our hospitals (including novel ways to get everyone to wash their hands).

db's Medical Rants
Robert M. Centor, MD, FACP, contributes short essays contemplating medicine and the health care system.

Suneel Dhand, MD, ACP Member
Suneel Dhand, MD, ACP Member, is a practicing physician in Massachusetts. He has published numerous articles in clinical medicine, covering a wide range of specialty areas including; pulmonology, cardiology, endocrinology, hematology, and infectious disease. He has also authored chapters in the prestigious "5-Minute Clinical Consult" medical textbook. His other clinical interests include quality improvement, hospital safety, hospital utilization, and the use of technology in health care.

Juliet K. Mavromatis, MD, FACP, provides a conversation about health topics for patients and health professionals.

Dr. Mintz' Blog
Matthew Mintz, MD, FACP, has practiced internal medicine for more than a decade and is an Associate Professor of Medicine at an academic medical center on the East Coast. His time is split between teaching medical students and residents, and caring for patients.

Everything Health
Toni Brayer, MD, FACP, blogs about the rapid changes in science, medicine, health and healing in the 21st century.

Vineet Arora, MD, FACP, is Associate Program Director for the Internal Medicine Residency and Assistant Dean of Scholarship & Discovery at the Pritzker School of Medicine for the University of Chicago. Her education and research focus is on resident duty hours, patient handoffs, medical professionalism, and quality of hospital care. She is also an academic hospitalist.

Glass Hospital
John H. Schumann, MD, FACP, provides transparency on the workings of medical practice and the complexities of hospital care, illuminates the emotional and cognitive aspects of caregiving and decision-making from the perspective of an active primary care physician, and offers behind-the-scenes portraits of hospital sanctums and the people who inhabit them.

Gut Check
Ryan Madanick, MD, ACP Member, is a gastroenterologist at the University of North Carolina School of Medicine, and the Program Director for the GI & Hepatology Fellowship Program. He specializes in diseases of the esophagus, with a strong interest in the diagnosis and treatment of patients who have difficult-to-manage esophageal problems such as refractory GERD, heartburn, and chest pain.

I'm dok
Mike Aref, MD, PhD, FACP, is an academic hospitalist with an interest in basic and clinical science and education, with interests in noninvasive monitoring and diagnostic testing using novel bedside imaging modalities, diagnostic reasoning, medical informatics, new medical education modalities, pre-code/code management, palliative care, patient-physician communication, quality improvement, and quantitative biomedical imaging.

Informatics Professor
William Hersh, MD, FACP, Professor and Chair, Department of Medical Informatics & Clinical Epidemiology, Oregon Health & Science University, posts his thoughts on various topics related to biomedical and health informatics.

David Katz, MD
David L. Katz, MD, MPH, FACP, is an internationally renowned authority on nutrition, weight management, and the prevention of chronic disease, and an internationally recognized leader in integrative medicine and patient-centered care.

Just Oncology
Richard Just, MD, ACP Member, has 36 years in clinical practice of hematology and medical oncology. His blog is a joint publication with Gregg Masters, MPH.

Kevin Pho, MD, ACP Member, offers one of the Web's definitive sites for influential health commentary.

MD Whistleblower
Michael Kirsch, MD, FACP, addresses the joys and challenges of medical practice, including controversies in the doctor-patient relationship, medical ethics and measuring medical quality. When he's not writing, he's performing colonoscopies.

Medical Lessons
Elaine Schattner, MD, FACP, shares her ideas on education, ethics in medicine, health care news and culture. Her views on medicine are informed by her past experiences in caring for patients, as a researcher in cancer immunology, and as a patient who's had breast cancer.

Mired in MedEd
Alexander M. Djuricich, MD, FACP, is the Associate Dean for Continuing Medical Education (CME), and a Program Director in Medicine-Pediatrics at the Indiana University School of Medicine in Indianapolis, where he blogs about medical education.

More Musings
Rob Lamberts, MD, ACP Member, a med-peds and general practice internist, returns with "volume 2" of his personal musings about medicine, life, armadillos and Sasquatch at More Musings (of a Distractible Kind).

David M. Sack, MD, FACP, practices general gastroenterology at a small community hospital in Connecticut. His blog is a series of musings on medicine, medical care, the health care system and medical ethics, in no particular order.

Reflections of a Grady Doctor
Kimberly Manning, MD, FACP, reflects on the personal side of being a doctor in a community hospital in Atlanta.

The Blog of Paul Sufka
Paul Sufka, MD, ACP Member, is a board certified rheumatologist in St. Paul, Minn. He was a chief resident in internal medicine with the University of Minnesota and then completed his fellowship training in rheumatology in June 2011 at the University of Minnesota Department of Rheumatology. His interests include the use of technology in medicine.

Technology in (Medical) Education
Neil Mehta, MBBS, MS, FACP, is interested in use of technology in education, social media and networking, practice management and evidence-based medicine tools, personal information and knowledge management.

Peter A. Lipson, MD
Peter A. Lipson, MD, ACP Member, is a practicing internist and teaching physician in Southeast Michigan. The blog, which has been around in various forms since 2007, offers musings on the intersection of science, medicine, and culture.

Why is American Health Care So Expensive?
Janice Boughton, MD, FACP, practiced internal medicine for 20 years before adopting a career in hospital and primary care medicine as a locum tenens physician. She lives in Idaho when not traveling.

World's Best Site
Daniel Ginsberg, MD, FACP, is an internal medicine physician who has avidly applied computers to medicine since 1986, when he first wrote medically oriented computer programs. He is in practice in Tacoma, Washington.

Other blogs of note:

American Journal of Medicine
Also known as the Green Journal, the American Journal of Medicine publishes original clinical articles of interest to physicians in internal medicine and its subspecialities, both in academia and community-based practice.

Clinical Correlations
A collaborative medical blog started by Neil Shapiro, MD, ACP Member, associate program director at New York University Medical Center's internal medicine residency program. Faculty, residents and students contribute case studies, mystery quizzes, news, commentary and more.

Interact MD
Michael Benjamin, MD, ACP member, doesn't accept industry money so he can create an independent, clinician-reviewed space on the Internet for physicians to report and comment on the medical news of the day.

PLoS Blog
The Public Library of Science's open access materials include a blog.

White Coat Rants
One of the most popular anonymous blogs written by an emergency room physician.

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