Friday, November 22, 2013
Performance measurement and the new cholesterol guidelines
Physicians face a consistent great challenge. As we learn more about pathophysiology and pharmacology, our recommendations can change dramatically. We do not really always know what we think we know. As physicians age, we all can give dramatic examples of changed beliefs. Here are some examples from my career. Beta blockers were initially contraindicated for systolic dysfunction; now they are indicated. Who would have thought that we could treat ulcer disease with antibiotics? We once gave estrogen to post-menopausal women to prevent heart disease, now we avoid them to prevent heart disease.
The new cholesterol guidelines have responded to a series of studies and analyses that have made clear that lowering the cholesterol is not the magic goal, rather statins (which clearly lower cholesterol) are “magic” but probably because of their pleiotropic effects.
Pleiotropic effects of a drug are actions other than those for which the agent was specifically developed. These effects may be related or unrelated to the primary mechanism of action of the drug, and they are usually unanticipated. Pleiotropic effects may be undesirable (such as side effects or toxicity), neutral, or, as is especially the case with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins), beneficial.
Pleiotropic effects of statins include improvement of endothelial dysfunction, increased nitric oxide bioavailability, antioxidant properties, inhibition of inflammatory responses, and stabilization of atherosclerotic plaques. These and several other emergent properties could act in concert with the potent low-density lipoprotein cholesterol-lowering effects of statins to exert early as well as lasting cardiovascular protective effects. Understanding the pleiotropic effects of statins is important to optimize their use in treatment and prevention of cardiovascular disease.
This major cholesterol guideline shift should quickly invalidate several major performance measures. We actually predicted this in 2006: Defining the proper guidelines—the case of cholesterol targets.
So for the past 7 years, we have used performance measurement to encourage lowering cholesterol and stimulating the use of drugs that had no outcome data. 7 years later we have a new guideline.
Should we write a new performance measure? We want to measure something.
What performance measure should we create? I favor using statins for secondary prevention, because the data there are very strong. I oppose measuring statin use for primary prevention, because the data are so much more controversial.
If we are going to measure performance, either to check our systems of care, or to “reward” physicians for doing their job, then we must have very clear measures. We must have measures without controversy. We have had the wrong measures for cholesterol for 7 years, even though we had data to show that only statins make a significant outcome difference.
Our underlying theory was wrong. I have taught for 7 years that only statins matter, because my reading of Rod Hayward’s paper convinced me that goals did not matter, being on a statin mattered. I, and others, taught against the performance measures and guidelines, because we believed the evidence. We were measured wrongly for 7 years, and only now are vindicated.
This story represents an example of just another hazard of performance measurement based on guidelines. We have wasted health care dollars prescribing expensive drugs for 7 years. The guideline just released may fix that problem. I fear that we have so convinced physicians to lower cholesterol that change will not happen as quickly as we want.
I hope that the Choosing Wisely campaign includes adherence to the new primary prevention guideline. Give statins, and only statins.
db is the nickname for Robert M. Centor, MD, FACP. db stands both for Dr. Bob and da boss. He is an academic general internist at the University of Alabama School of Medicine, and is the Associate Dean for the Huntsville Regional Medical Campus of UASOM. He also serves as a frequent ward attending at the Birmingham VA Hospital. This post originally appeared at his blog, db's Medical Rants.
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Albert Fuchs, MD, FACP, graduated from the University of California, Los Angeles School of Medicine, where he also did his internal medicine training. Certified by the American Board of Internal Medicine, Dr. Fuchs spent three years as a full-time faculty member at UCLA School of Medicine before opening his private practice in Beverly Hills in 2000.
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Ira S. Nash, MD, FACP, is the senior vice president and executive director of the North Shore-LIJ Medical Group, and a professor of Cardiology and Population Health at Hofstra North Shore-LIJ School of Medicine. He is Board Certified in Internal Medicine and Cardiovascular Diseases and was in the private practice of cardiology before joining the full-time faculty of Massachusetts General Hospital.
Zackary Berger, MD, ACP Member, is a primary care doctor and general internist in the Division of General Internal Medicine at Johns Hopkins. His research interests include doctor-patient communication, bioethics, and systematic reviews.
Controversies in Hospital
Run by three ACP Fellows, this blog ponders vexing issues in infection prevention and control, inside and outside the hospital. Daniel J Diekema, MD, FACP, practices infectious diseases, clinical microbiology, and hospital epidemiology in Iowa City, Iowa, splitting time between seeing patients with infectious diseases, diagnosing infections in the microbiology laboratory, and trying to prevent infections in the hospital. Michael B. Edmond, MD, FACP, is a hospital epidemiologist in Iowa City, IA, with a focus on understanding why infections occur in the hospital and ways to prevent these infections, and sees patients in the inpatient and outpatient settings. Eli N. Perencevich, MD, ACP Member, is an infectious disease physician and epidemiologist in Iowa City, Iowa, who studies methods to halt the spread of resistant bacteria in our hospitals (including novel ways to get everyone to wash their hands).
db's Medical Rants
Robert M. Centor, MD, FACP, contributes short essays contemplating medicine and the health care system.
Suneel Dhand, MD, ACP Member
Suneel Dhand, MD, ACP Member, is a practicing physician in Massachusetts. He has published numerous articles in clinical medicine, covering a wide range of specialty areas including; pulmonology, cardiology, endocrinology, hematology, and infectious disease. He has also authored chapters in the prestigious "5-Minute Clinical Consult" medical textbook. His other clinical interests include quality improvement, hospital safety, hospital utilization, and the use of technology in health care.
Juliet K. Mavromatis, MD, FACP, provides a conversation about health topics for patients and health professionals.
Dr. Mintz' Blog
Matthew Mintz, MD, FACP, has practiced internal medicine for more than a decade and is an Associate Professor of Medicine at an academic medical center on the East Coast. His time is split between teaching medical students and residents, and caring for patients.
Toni Brayer, MD, FACP, blogs about the rapid changes in science, medicine, health and healing in the 21st century.
Vineet Arora, MD, FACP, is Associate Program Director for the Internal Medicine Residency and Assistant Dean of Scholarship & Discovery at the Pritzker School of Medicine for the University of Chicago. Her education and research focus is on resident duty hours, patient handoffs, medical professionalism, and quality of hospital care. She is also an academic hospitalist.
John H. Schumann, MD, FACP, provides transparency on the workings of medical practice and the complexities of hospital care, illuminates the emotional and cognitive aspects of caregiving and decision-making from the perspective of an active primary care physician, and offers behind-the-scenes portraits of hospital sanctums and the people who inhabit them.
Ryan Madanick, MD, ACP Member, is a gastroenterologist at the University of North Carolina School of Medicine, and the Program Director for the GI & Hepatology Fellowship Program. He specializes in diseases of the esophagus, with a strong interest in the diagnosis and treatment of patients who have difficult-to-manage esophageal problems such as refractory GERD, heartburn, and chest pain.
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David Katz, MD
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Other blogs of note:
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Also known as the Green Journal, the American Journal of Medicine publishes original clinical articles of interest to physicians in internal medicine and its subspecialities, both in academia and community-based practice.
A collaborative medical blog started by Neil Shapiro, MD, ACP Member, associate program director at New York University Medical Center's internal medicine residency program. Faculty, residents and students contribute case studies, mystery quizzes, news, commentary and more.
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One of the most popular anonymous blogs written by an emergency room physician.